نقد فمنیستی رمان نوجوان در خون‌آشام سیامک گلشیری و ترجمه‌ی خون‌آشام استفنی مه‌یر

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه حضرت نرجس(س)، رفسنجان، ایران.

2 مربی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه حضرت نرجس(س)، رفسنجان، ایران.

چکیده

نقد فمنیستی رویکردی است که از اواخر قرن بیستم فعالیت خود را آغاز نمود تا به بررسی وضعیت زنان و تجربیات آنها در متون ادبی بپردازد. منتقدین این شیوه برای تحلیل متون ادبی از دو شیوه­ی نقد زنانه (زن به عنوان خالق اثر) و تحلیل نقش­های جنسیتی (جلوه­های زن به عنوان شخصیت) استفاده می­کنند. در پژوهش حاضر سعی شده است با استفاده از هر دو گرایش موجود در این رویکرد دو مجموعه­ی خون­آشام استفنی مه­یر و سیامک گلشیری بارویکرد زنانه مورد تحلیل قرار­گیرد تا به این سؤال پاسخ­داده­شود که آیا دو اثر حاضر، تحت تأثیر گفتمان مردسالار قرار گرفته­اند؟ و آیا گلشیری که شخصیت خون­آشام خود را از افسانه­های غربی وام گرفته­است و با ورود خون­آشام به کوچه­های تهران سعی نموده به آن رنگ بومی بدهد، مباحث فرهنگی و اجتماعی مانند نگاه به زن را در اثر خود بومی ساخته است وآیا شخصیت­های زن او متفاوت با شخصیت­های زن مه­یر نمایان شده­اند یاخیر؟ مه­یر اگرچه به­عنوان یک زن سعی کرده است زن­های داستان خود را شخصیت­هایی قوی و مستقل ارائه­نماید، امّا در بعضی از موارد نیز تحت تأثیر گفتمان مرد سالار قرار­گرفته­است. در خون­آشام گلشیری نقش­های جنسیتی بیشتر از مه­یر تکرار شده­است و در برخی موارد گلشیری تحت تأثیر فرهنگ سنتی ایران در نقطه­ی مقابل مه­یر عمل کرده ­‌است. تحقیق حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با ابزار فیش­برداری صورت گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Feminist criticism of YA Novel in Siamak Golshiri's Vampire and Translation by Stephanie Meyer

نویسندگان [English]

  • zeinab sheikhhosseini 1
  • Fateme Zand 2
  • Fatemeh Zahra Nazari Robati 2
1 persian litrature,narjes university, Rafsanjan,Iran
2 Instructor, faculty member of translation studies, English language and literature, Narjes University, Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Feminist criticism is the approach that began in the late twentieth century to examine the status of women and their experiences in literary texts. Critics of this approach apply two methods of woman criticism (A woman as an author) and, gender roles analysis (woman characters representations) to examine the literary texts.
This study tried to analyze two vampire novels of Meyer and Golshiri, with a feminist approach by applying these methods, to answer the following questions: were the works influenced by patriarchal discourse? Borrowing his vampire characters from Western myths, did Golshiris domesticate his characters by letting them enter the streets of Tehran? Did he domesticate the cultural and social issues such as attitudes towards the woman in his work? Is there any difference between Golshiri`s woman characters Meyer`s.Meyer, as a woman writer, has tried to dramatize her women characters as strong and independent, she is influenced by male-dominated discourse in some cases. In the vampire of Golshiri, the gender roles are more frequent than Meyer's, and in some cases

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vampire
  • woman criticism
  • feminist criticism
  • Stephenie Meyer
  • Siamak Golshiri
Brannon, Linda. Gender: Psychological Perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon ,1999.
Butler.Judith. Gender Trouble. London: Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1990.
Daneshvar, Simin. Sarban-e Sargardan. 1st ed., Kharazmi, 1380/2001.
Ebrahimi Lameh, Mehdi, “Emkan-e Bumisazi-e Shakhsiathay-e Delhoreavar Naghdi bar Ketab-e Shab-e Shekar” [“The possibility of Localization of Terrifying Characters, Critique of the Book Night of Hunting”]. Book Review Quarterly/ Faslnameh-e Naghde Ketab, 2/6, (1394/2015): 17-26.
Golshiri, Siamak, Khunasham, Tehran, Kuche Ashbah [Vampir. Tehran, Ghost Alley].Tehran: Ofogh, 1394/2015.
---.  Khunasham5 Shab-e Shekar [Vampire 5 Hunting Nights]. Tehran: Ofogh, 1395/2016.
---. Khunasham2, Molaghat ba Khunasham [Vampire 2, Meet the Vampire]. Tehran: Ofogh, 1394/2015.
---. Khunasham4 Jangal-e Abr [Vampire 4 Cloud Forest]. Tehran: Ofogh, 1395/2016.
Hosseini, Maryam. “ Revayat-e Zananeh dar Dastannevisi Zanane” [“Women's Narrative in Women's Fiction”]. Ketab-e Mah-e Adabiat va Falsafe [Book of the Month of Literature and Philosophy], vol. 1, no. 9:(1384/2005): 101-94.
Hourihan, Margery. Deconstructing the Hero: Literary Theory and Children’s Literature. London: Routledge.2005.
Manderstedt, Lena and Paolo Annbritt. Interdisciplinary Approaches to Twilight, Negotiating Norms of Gender and Sexuality Online. Edited by Maria Larsson and Ann Steiner. Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2011.
Marandi, Seyed Mohammad and Sirous Amiri. “ Sakhtarshekani Yadnegasht-e Zan-e Irani dar Atre Sonbol Atre Kaj Asar-e Firoozeh Jazayeri Duma” [“Decomposition of Iranian Women's Memoirs in Funny in Farsi: A Memoir of Growing Up Iranian in America by Firoozeh Jazayeri Duma”]. Research in Contemporary World Literature [Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji], vol. 19, no. 1(1399/2014): 122-103.
Mayer, Stephanie. Twilight. Translated by Iraj Azarmesal, Tehran: Danesh, 1389/2010.
Meyer, Stephenie. Eclips, Twilight, Book 3.  London: Atom, 2007.
---. New Moon. Translated by Iraj Azarmesal, Tehran: Danesh. 1382/2003.
---. Breaking Dawn, Twilight, Book 4. London: Atom, 2008.
Michel, Andrée. Down with Stereotypes!: Eliminating Sexism from Children's Literature and School Textbooks. Paris: Unesco, 1986.
Michelle, Andre. Le Feminisme. Translated by Homa Zanjani Zadeh, Mashhad: Nik Publication, 1372/1993.
Mirsandsi, Seyed Mohammad, et al. “Tahlil-e Farhangi-e Feminism dar Romanhay-e Postmodern-e Farsi” [“Cultural Analysis of Feminism in Postmodern Persian Novels”]. Faslnameh Farhangi Tarbiati-e Zanan va Khanevade [Cultural and Educational Quarterly of Women and Family], no. 21 (1391/2012): 138-105.
Moradkhani, Safia, and Maryam Talebi. “ Naghd-e femenisti-e Majmue Dastan-e Dokhtar Khale Van Gogh Asar-e Farideh Khorami” [“A Feminist Critique of the Collection of Stories Dokhtar khale Van Gogh  by Farideh Khorami”]. Zan dar Farhang va Honar [Woman in Culture and Art], vol. 1, no. 4 (1389/2010): 5-24.
Nejati, Hossein, et al. “Naghd-e Femenisti-e Romanhay-e Banatoreyaz asar-e Raja Asane va Adat Mikonim Asar-e Zoya Pirzad” [“Feminist Critic of the Novels The daughters of Riyath by Rejaosaneh and We get Used to it by Zoaya Pirzad”] . Research in Contemporary World Literature [Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji], vol. 1, no. 26(1400/2021):192-215.
O’Sullivan, Emer. Comparative Children’s Literature. Translated by Anthea Bell. Oxon: Routledge, 2005.
Payende, Hussein. Goftman-e Naghd [Discourse of Criticism]. vol.1, Tehran: Roozgar. 1382/2003.
Pourqarib, Behzad. “Naghde Femenisti-e Bumgeray-e Jai Khali Salouch” [“Ecological Feminist Critique of the Novel Jai Khali Salouch”]. Adabiat-e Parsi-e Moaser [Contemporary Persian Literature], vol.2, no. 8 (1397/2018): 24-17.
Purgive, Farideh, and Masih Zakavat. "Naghshhay-e Gensiati dar khale Suske” [“Study of Gender role in Khale Suske”]. Motaleat-e Adabiat-e Kudak/ Journal of Children’s Literature Studies, no. 2, (1389/2010): 27-44.
Rydstedt, smultron. Femininity in Twilight: A Literary Analysis of Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight from a Gender Perspective. Goteborgs Universitet, 2012.
Salimi, Ali, and Shahriar Bagherabadi. “Saye roshan-e simay-e zan dar romanhay-e najib mahfuz(payamadhay-e nagovar-e gozar az sonnat be donyay-e jadid)”, Motaleat-e dastani/ Fiction Studies, No. 2, (1383/2004): 92-78.
Schafers, Bernhard. Soziologie des Jugendalters [Jame-e Shenasi-e Javanan]. Translated by Karamat-ollah Rasekh, Tehran: Ney Publishing, 1383/2004.
Smith, Dorothy E. “Femininity as Discourse”. Texts, Facts, and Feminiity, edited by Leslie G. Roman and Linda K. Christian, 1988.
Stephens, John. “Gender, Genre and Children's Literature.”. signal. 79 (1996): 17-30.
Stephens, John. “Gender, Genre, and Children's Literature”. Translated by Ismail Hosseini. Digarkhanihay-e Nagozir [In Quest for the Center]. Edited by Morteza Khosrownejad, Tehran: Center for the Intellectual Development of Children and Adolescents. 1387/2008 .
Taheri,Ghodratollah. “Zaban va Neveshtare Zananeh; Vagheiat ya Tavahom”[“ Women's Language and Writing; Reality or Illusion?”]. Majalleh-e Zaban va Adab-e Parsi [Journal of Persian Language and Literature], no. 42 (1388/2009): 107-87.
Taylor, Frank. “Content Analysis and Gender Stereotypes in Children’s Books”. Teaching Sociology, vol. 31, no. 3 (2003): 300-311.
Tyson, Lois. Critical Theory Today. Translated by Maziar Hosseinzadeh and Fatemeh Hosseini, Tehran: Negah-e Emruz. 1394/2015.
Yazdani, Abbas and Behrooz Jandaghi. Feminism va Daneshhay-e Feministi [Feminism and Feminist Sciences]. Qom: Women's Studies and Research Office, 1382/2003.