ادبیات چیست؟ خوانشی ویتگنشتاینی از بازی زبانی ادبیات و نمود آن در صید قزل‌آلا در آمریکا

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکدی زبان ها و ادبیات خارجی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده‌ی زبان‌ها و ادبیات خارجی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

پرسش از چیستی ادبیات در تاریخ نقد ادبی همواره پاسخ‌هایی مناقشه‌برانگیز در پی داشته ‌است. بسیاری از نظریه‌های ادبی کلاسیک تلاش کرده‌اند تا چیستی ادبیات را از رهگذر یافتن ویژگی‌ متنیِ یگانه و مشترک در آثار ادبی فراچنگ آورند، اما این رویکردِ ذات‌باورانه همواره با چالشی اساسی مواجه بوده است: با ظهور آثار «آوانگارد»ی که آن «ویژگی» را نداشتند اما سرانجام به نحوی «ادبیات» به شمار می‌آمدند، کارآمدی نظریه‌های مذکور به چالش کشیده می‌شد. در پاسخ به این چالش، برنهاد مقاله‌ی حاضر این است که از نگاه ویتگنشتاین متأخر واکاوی قواعد حاکم بر نگارش ادبی نشان می‌دهد که ادبیات گونه‌ای بازی زبانی است که در آن «حرکت اشتباه» وجود ندارد. یک برتری تعریف پیشنهادی مقاله‌ی حاضر نسبت به سایر تعاریف و نظریه‌های پسا-ویتگنشتاینی این است که تعریف مذکور در عین ذات‌باورانه بودنْ در «ادبیات» انگاشتنِ آثار «آوانگارد» ادبی با چالش نسبتاً کمتری مواجه خواهد‌ بود. در پایان، خواهیم دید که این تعریف ویتگنشتاینی از ادبیات چگونه به واکاویِ خوانشی جدید از معنای «خود-ارجاع» رمان صید قزل‌آلا در آمریکا یاری می‌رساند.      

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

What Is Literature? A Wittgensteinian Reading of the Language Game of Literature and its Manifestation in Trout Fishing in America

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Soltan Beyad 1
  • Bessat Elmie 2
1 Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The question “What is literature?” has always aroused controversial answers throughout the history of literary criticism. Classic theories of literature have tried to characterize the essence of literature through proposing a unique textual property common to all instances of literary works, yet this essentialist approach has always faced an intractable challenge: with the emergence of “avant-garde” works, which did not have that particular “property” yet somehow came to be regarded as “literature”, the explanatory power of such theories were challenged. In response to this challenge, in this paper, it will be argued that, from the later Wittgenstein’s perspective, an analysis of the rules governing literary writing demonstrates that literature is a language game wherein there are no “wrong moves”. One advantage of this new definition, despite its essentialist character, will be that it will face relatively fewer challenges in considering “avant-garde” works as literature. Finally, it will be demonstrated how this new Wittgensteinian definition of literature contributes to an understanding of the “reflexive” meaning of Brautigan’s Trout Fishing in America.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Literature (Literary composition)
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein
  • Language games
  • rules
  • Richard Brautigan
  • Trout Fishing in America
Abedinifard, Morteza. Moghaddamei bar Zibashenasi-e Wittgenstein (An Introduction to Wittgenstein’s Aesthetics). Tehran: Ghoghnous, 1389.
Adajian, Thomas. “The Definition of Art”. From Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Translated by Faezeh Jafarian, Tehran: Ghoghnous, 1395.
Arrington, Robert. Ludwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical Investigations. Translated by Hassan Arab, Tehran: Zendegi-e-Rouzaneh, 1396. 
Attridge, Derek. “Literature and the Nugget of Knowledge. An Interview with Derek Attridge and Peter Lamarque”. Interview by Arthur Cools and Leen Verheyen. Aesthetics Investigations, Special Issue: Is There Truth Through Fiction?, vol. 3, no. 1(2019): 9-27, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4067659.
Barrett, Cyril. “Wittgenstein, Leavis, and Literature”. New Literary History, vol. ‌19, no. 2 (1988), Wittgenstein and Literary Theory: 385-401, http://www.jstor.com/stable/469344.
Barth, John. “The Literature of Replenishment: Postmodernist Fiction.” Postmodern Literature Report, Attitudes, Criticism. Edited and Translated by Payam Yazdanjou, Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz, 1394.
Bell, Ian. “The Reference of Trout Fishing in America”. English Studies, 94:4: 386-403, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013838X.2013.780820.
Berger, Yve. “Natavani-e Adabiyat” [“The Inability of Literature”]. Vazifey-e Adabiyat [The Task of Literature], Edited and Translated by Abol-Hasssan Najafi, Tehran: Niloufar, 1398.
Brautigan, Richard. Trout Fishing in America. Translated by Payam Yazdanjou, Tehran: Nahsr-e Cheshmeh, 1396.
Carroll, Noël. On Criticism. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Collins, Billy. “Brautigan’s Surreal Story: ‘Trout Fishing In America’”. Interview by Audie Cornish. Npr.org, 6 Feb. 2010, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123439516&t=1606257120158.
Danto, Arthur. What Art Is. Translated by Farideh Farnoudfar, Tehran: Nashr-e Cheshmeh, 1398.
Eagleton, Terry. The Event of Literature. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Grigoriev, Serge. “Theory and Fiction: Rorty’s View of Philosophy as Literature”. The European Legacy, vol. 16, no. 1 (2011): 13-26, https://doi.org/10.1080/10848770.2010.517261.
Hearron, Thomas. “Escape through Imagination in Trout Fishing in America”. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, 16 (1974):1, 25-31, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00111619.1974.10690070.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgment. Translated by James Creed Meredith, Edited by Nicholas Walker, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Kennick, William E. “Does Traditional Aesthetics Rest on a Mistake?” Mind, vol. 67, no. 267(1958): 317-334,  https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2251530.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A1b6f9060a4cad47455cdf62df7634362.
Khattat, NasrinDokht, and Issa Amankhani. “Adabiyat va Falsafeye Vojoudi” [“Literature and Existential Philosophy”]. Research in Contemporary World Literature [Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji], no.45(Summer 1387): 47-64.
Lamarque, Peter. “Prolegomena to any Future Philosophy of Literature”. Frame, Tijdschrift voor Literatuurwetenschap, vol. 24(2011): 54-64, https://www.tijdschriftframe.nl/theory-today/peter-lamarque-prolegomena-to-any-future-philosophy-of-literature/.
---. “Précis of The Philosophy of Literature”. British Journal of Aesthetics. vol. 50, no. 1(January 2010): 77–80,  https://doi.org/10.1093/aesthj/ayp065.
---. The Opacity of Narrative. London: Rowman and Littlefield International, 2014.
---. The Philosophy of Literature. Oxford: Blackwell, 2009.
Moussavi Shirazi, Seyed Jamal. “Ta’sir-e-Sourealism bar Tafakkor-e-Mo’aser” [“The Influence of Surrealism on Contemporary Thought”]. Research in Contemporary World Literature [Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji], no. 50(Winter 1387): 147-157.
New, Christopher. Philosophy of Literature: an Introduction. Routledge, 1999.
Sartre, Jean Paul. What Is Literature? Translated by Abol-Hassan Najafi and Mostafa Rahimi, Tehran: Niloufar, 1388.
Searle, John R. “The Logical Status of Fictional Discourse”. New Literary History, vol. 6, no. 2 (1975), On Narrative and Narratives: 319-332, http://www.jstor.org/stable/468422.
Seib, Kenneth. “Trout Fishing in America”. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, 13:2 (1971): 63-71, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00111619.1971.10690001.
Shir, Jay. “Wittgenstein’s Aesthetics and The Theory of Literature.” The British Journal of Aesthetics, vol. 18, no. 1(Winter 1978): 3–11, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaesthetics/18.1.3.
Skilleås, Ole Martin. Philosophy and Literature: An Introduction. Translated by Morteza Naderi Darrehshouri, Tehran: Akhtaran, 1393.
Todorov, Tzvetan. Adabiyat dar Mokhatereh [La littérature en peril]. Translated by Mohammad Mehdi Shojai. Tehran: Mahi, 1394.
---. Boutighay-e Sakhtargara [Qu'est ce structuralism]. Translated by Mohammad Nabavi, Tehran: Aghah, 1396.
Warburton, Nigel. The Art Question. Translated by Mahtab Kalantari, Tehran: Nashr-e Ney, 1392.
Waugh, Patricia. Metafiction: The Theory and Practice of Self-Conscious Fiction. Routledge, 2011.
Weitz, Morris. “The Role of Theory in Aesthetics”. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, vol. 15, no. 1(1956): 27-35, https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/427491.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A65334b905db3552aaaf4b084d20f3013.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. “Lecture on Philosophy”. Wittgenstein’s Lectures Cambridge 1932-1935, Edited by Alice Ambrose, New York: Prometheus Books, 2001.
---. Bargheha [Zettel]. Translated by Malek Hosseini, Tehran: Hermes, 1397.
---. Culture and Value. Translated by Omid Mehregan, Tehran: Gham-e No, 1395.
---. Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology and Religious Belief. Edited by Cyril Barrett, Berkley: University of California Press, 1967.
---. On Certainty. Edited by G.E.M Anscombe and G.H. von Wright, Translated by Denis Paul and G. E. M. Anscombe, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1969.
---. Philosophical Investigations. Translated by Fereydoun Fatemi, Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz, 1393.
---. Philosophical Remarks. Edited by Rush Rhees, Translated by Raymond Hargreaves and Roger White, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1998.
---. The Blue Book. Translated by Malek Hosseini, Tehran: Hermes, 1393.