عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Although literature was supposed to have an instrumental , advertizing and political role in the revival of socialism , the hegemony of Marxist ideology did not simply take place in this area . T h i s article studies three considerable works that have had a significant role in smashing ideological obstacles and generated a creative literary atmosphere . These three works have also been able to make an organic link with global literature and have avoided the dominant monological discourse with the help of their special themes and structures. These works belong to different decades and have differences in terms of content , but have not surrendered to the requirements o f socialist realism . This study shows that rationalism , skepticism , introspection and individualism were so embedded in the German culture that even the pro - Marxist authors refused to accept the presuppositions of "socialist realism" .