جبرِ فقر یا فقر اراده؟ مطالعه جامعه‌شناختی سنگ صبور و جود گمنام بر اساس نظریه پی‌یر بوردیو

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه،‌کرمانشاه،‌ایران.

10.22059/jor.2023.346430.2330

چکیده

مطالعه انسان در جامعه به‌عنوان موجودی جمعی تنها به رشتۀ جامعه‌شناسی محدود نمی‌شود. بازنمایی انسان‌ها در جوامع و بررسی دغدغه‌ها، نگرانی‌ها و ترس‌های آنها در ارتباط با دیگران همیشه یکی از تلاش‌های عمدۀ آثار ادبی بوده است. نقد جامعه‌شناسانۀ آثار ادبی حوزۀ مطالعاتی جدیدی است که با تمرکز بر این ارتباط درک متفاوتی از دو حوزه را سبب شده ‌است. پی‌یر بوردیو، جامعه‌شناس فرانسوی، جامعه را متشکل از میدان‌های مختلفی می‌داند که افراد برای کسب مرتبه و جایگاه بهتر (سرمایه‌ها) در آن تلاش می‌کنند. سرمایه‌ها در نظریۀ او، به سرمایۀ اقتصادی محدود نمی‌شود و سه شکل دیگر، یعنی سرمایۀ اجتماعی، فرهنگی و نمادین را نیز شامل می‌شود. در مقالۀ حاضر، نگارندگان با استفاده از مفاهیم نظریۀ بوردیو تلاش می‌کنند تحلیل و خوانش متفاوتی از رمان‌های سنگ صبور اثر صادق چوبک و جود گمنام اثر تامس هاردی ارائه کنند. هر دو رمان از برجسته‌ترین آثار مکتب ناتورالیسم ایران و انگلستان به‌شمار می‌روند که همیشه در نقدها بر جبرگرایی زیست‌محیطی آنها تأکید شده‌است. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که شخصیت‌های اصلی رمان‌ها از انباشت اولیۀ سرمایه برخوردار نیستند و تلاش آنها برای کسب این سرمایه‌ها، خصوصا سرمایۀ فرهنگی، نه کاملا به‌خاطر جبر زیست‌محیطی که به‌دلیل حماقت‌ها و بهره‌نبردن از فرصت‌های زندگی-شان به نتیجه نمی‌رسد. نتیجه دیگر آنکه جامعۀ ایران در سنگ صبور بسیار سرکوبگرتر از جامعۀ انگلستان در جود گمنام است. در جامعۀ ایران، با وجود جبر سنگین حاکم، شخصیت‌های مرد در ناکامی خود مقصرند و زنان چاره‌ای جز تسلیم سرنوشت رنج‌آور تحمیل‌شده به آن‌ها توسط جامعه مردسالار و خرافه‌پرست را ندارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determinism of Poverty or Poverty of Determination? Sociological Study of The Patient Stone and Jude the Obscure Based on Pierre Bourdieu's Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Bagheri
  • Jafar Mirzaee Porkoli
Department of English language and literature from Razi University, Kermanshah, , Kermanshah, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The study of Humans as social creatures is not limited to sociology. One of the main concerns of literary works has always been to reflect humans inside societies, exploring their worries, concerns and fears in relation to others . Sociological analysis of literary texts is a new field which focuses on this relationship and arrives at a deep and different understanding of the two fields. Pierre Bourdieu, the French sociologist, believes that society consists of different fields within which the individuals fight for better positions and places (capitals). In his theory, capital is not limited to economic capital and includes social, cultural and symbolic ones too. The authors of this article have used Bourdieu’s concepts and theory to give a fresh reading and interpretation of Sādeq Chubak's The Patient Stone and Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure. Both novels are among the most distinguished works of Naturalism that have always been analyzed for their emphasis on the environmental determinism. This study shows that the characters in these novels lack basic accumulation of capitals and their efforts to obtain the capitals, particularly cultural capital, fail not solely because of the environmental determinism but for their stupidity and losing life opportunities. Another result is that the Iranian society in Patient Stone is more suppressive than the English society in Jude the Obscure. Despite the oppressive atmosphere in the Iranian society, the male characters are responsible for their failures and women have to accept the unhappy fate that the patriarchal and superstitious society imposes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sociological Criticism
  • Pierre Bourdieu
  • Forms of capitals
  • The Patient Stone
  • Sādeq Chubak
  • Jude the Obscure
  • Thomas Hardy
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