چشم انداز، رئالیسم علم‌گرایانه و تغییرات اقلیمی در رمان خورشیدی

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده زبانها و ادبیات خارجی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده زبانها و ادبیات خارجی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده زبانها و ادبیات خارجی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این مقاله به‌بررسی توصیف­­های چشم­انداز در رمان خورشیدی اثر ین مکیون می­پردازد و دیدگاه معرفت­شناختی راوی داستان را، با توجه به‌این توصیف‌ها بررسی می­کند. نوشتار استدلال می­کند که توصیف چشم­اندازها در سبک رئالیستی این اثر، ریشه در اندیشة علم­گرایانه و باور قاطع و تقلیل­گرایانه راوی و شخصیت محوری داستان به سنت و آموزه­های )نئو(لیبرالیستی دارد. مقاله، با عنایت به‌اشارات و توصیف‌های داستان، این مسئله را مورد کنکاش قرار می­دهد که چگونه و با چه سازوکارهایی زمین به­عنوان پهنه­ای که از ‌یک طرف طبیعت و از طرفی دیگر کشورها و مرزهای سیاسی­شان را در خود جای‌داده بود، از اواخر سده بیستم تبدیل به‌یک چشم­انداز و سیاره­ای کروی و بدون مرز شده است. همچنین، این نوشته، با اتکا به اندیشه‌های هاروی باورمندی افراطی شخصیت اصلی رمان و راوی داستان به‌ساحت علم و منجی پنداشتن آن را به بوته­ی نقد می­کشد و می­کوشد تا ثابت کند؛ نگرش علی­الظاهر زیست بوم‌گرایانه شخصیت اصلی داستان ریشه در سنتی دارد که خود مسبب معضلات محیط­زیستی دنیا است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Landscape, Scientistic Realism, and Climate Change in Ian McEwan's Solar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohammad Marandi 1
  • Zohre Ramin 2
  • Mohammad Bagher Shabanpour 3
1 Department of English, faculty of Foreign languages and Literatures, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 English Department, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
This paper studies the landscapes in Ian McEwan’s Solar and examines the narrator’s epistemological lens in his description of the landscapes. The research draws upon David Harvey’s definition of built environment, which contributes to the generation of a more practical definition of landscape, and argues that the narrator and the focalizer’s realistic descriptions of the landscapes have their origin in their scientistic mindset and firm reductionist belief in (neo)liberalism. With regard to such descriptions, the paper focuses on how, since the late twentieth century, the earth, as the cradle of nature and location of countries with definite political borders, is transformed into a landscape of a (blue) planet without any political or spatial borders on it. Using Harvey’s Marxist critiques of capitalism and neoliberalism, this study also analyzes the narrator and focalizer’s belief in science as a savior and the single avenue towards understanding the world. It is concluded that the ecological stance in the story is grounded in the very epistemology from which the man-made climate change arises.

 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key Words: epistemology
  • Harvey
  • McEwan
  • Landscape
  • (Neo)Liberalism
  • Scientistic Realism
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