A Comparative Personality Typology of Mohammad-Taqi Bahar And Fadwa Tuqan Based on Their Prison Poems According to Enneagram school

Document Type : Research Paper


Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Birjand, Iran


Poems' content demonstrates poets' personality which comes out of their feeling and imagination, and reflects their persona. Therefore, analyzing poems' content may reveal some angles of poets' persona beyond political and geograghical borders, so in comparative literature, poets' content can be compared so that we can grasp homogeneity and heterogeneity of their persona. Eniagram school introduces nine types of personality and elaborates on their features. According to Eniagram school's principles, everybody can own only one of these types. Malekoshoara-bahar, an Iranian literate, and Fadavi Touqan, a Palestinian poet, devoted many of their poems to resistance literature based on political and social issues and problems. The present study aims at analyzing the imprisonment poems of above-mentioned poets especially aspects regarding fighting, exile and prison through an analytical-comparative method and based on Eniagram school. As indicated by the results of the present study, the most common contents of their imprisonment subjects refers to litigation, anti-authoritarianism, making awareness, and honorong symbols and martyrs; and this indicates the accountability, persistence, realism and collectivism in


Main Subjects

Abad, Marzieh. Hbsiyha Poetry in Arab Literature from the Beginning until Now. Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication, 2001.
Afkhami, Reza, and Mahdieh Ja’fari. “The Personology of Urwa ibn al-Ward al’s Personality Type through His Poetry, Based on Enneagram of Personality Theory.” The Quarterly Journal of Lisan-i Mubin, vol. 10, no. 32 (2018): 21-42.
Ahangar, Katayoon. Personology Skills: An Introduction to Different Personality Types. Mashhad: Shahidipoor Publication, 2006.
Al-Khatib, Hesam. The Horizons of the World and Arab Comparative Literature. First Edition. Damascus: Dar- Al Fekr Publication, 1999.
Al-khazra Aljiousi, Salma. Encyclopedia of Palestinian Contemporary Literature. First Edition. Oman: Dar- Al Fars Publication, 1997.
Al-Moavvash, Sal. Hbsiyha in Arab Contemporary Literature. First Edition. Beirut: Dar- Al Nahda Al- Arabieh, 2003.
Alrajehi, Abdeh. Comparative Literature. Beirut: Dar-alnahda Al-Arabieh Publication, 2007.
Al-Souafiri, Kamel. Contemporary Literature in Palestine. Qahereh: Dar-al Maaref Publication, 1975.
Amin Moghaddasi, Abolhasan. Comparative Literature with Focus on a Comparison of Mohammad-Taqi Bahar (Known as Malek osh-Sho'arā) and Ahmad Showqi (known as Amir-al-shoara). Tehran: The University of Tehran Publication, 2007.
Aryanpoor, Yahya. From Nima Youshij to the Current Time (A History of Contemporary Persian Literature). Tabriz: Zavvar Publication, 2008.
Bahar, Mohammad Taqi. Poetry Collection. Edited by Chehrzad Bahar. Tehran: Toos, 1956.
Daqiqian, Parin. The Psychology of the Nine Personality Types. Tehran: Ashianeh Publication, 2011.
Farzi, Hamid Reza, and Elham Alipouran Lashkarshekan. “A Comparative Study of Hbsiyha Poetry of Mohammad-Taqi Bahar (Known as Malek osh-Sho'arā) and Nazem Hekmat.” Comparative Literature Studies Quarterly vol. 5, no. 18 (2011): 111-133.
Fayyaz, Mahdi. Looking Back to Mohammad-Taqi Bahar. Edited by Saeed BozorgBigdeli. Tehran: The Institute of Research and Humanities, 2007.
Ghaffari, GholamAli. A Comparative Study of Hbsiyha Poetry of Mohammad-Taqi Bahar (Known as Malek osh-Sho'arā) and Ahmad Alsafi Alnajafi. Dissertation, Azad Islamic University, Tabriz Branch, 2010.
Kambel Al-yesooei, Robert B. Great Figures of Arab Contemporary Literature(Biographies). First Edition, Second Volume. Qom: Zavelqorba Publication, 2010.
Karandish, Maryam. “Which Personality Type Are You?” Woman’s MessageJournal, vol. 10, no. 278 (2015): 56-60.
Meqdadi, Bahram. “Comparative Literature and Its Role in the Dialogue among Civilizations.” Foreign Languages Research Journal, 13 (2002): 129-149.
Mozaffari, Solmaz, et al. “A Critical Reading of Nostalgia in the Poetry of Fadwa Touqan.” Research in Contemporary World Literature [Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji], vol. 22, no.2 (2017): 569-585.
Najm, Seyyed. Resistance and Fiction in Palestinian Literature: A Case Study of Intifada. Damascus: Dar- Al Monir.
Nott, Charles S. Teachings of Gurdjief: A Pupil's Journal f. First Edition. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1961.
Qahramani, Ali, and Masoomeh Qahramanpoor. “A Comparative Study of the Male Figure in Fadwa Tuqan and Simin Behbahani’s Poetry.” The International Conference on Language and Literature, Ray, Farhangian University, 2016, 1-21.
Sajedi Saba, Tahmoores. “About Comparative Literature.” Foreign Languages Research Journal, vol. 9, no. 17 (2004): 21-28.
Seyyedi, Seyyed Hasan, and Shirin Salem. “The Representations of Resistance in Fadwa Tuqan’s Poetry.” Journal of Resistance Literature, the Faculty of Humanities, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, vol. 6, no. 5&6 (2012): 185-208.
Tuqan, Fadwa. Poetry Collection. Beirut: Dar-al Awda, 1978.
---. Poetry Collection. Beirut: Dar-al Awda. 1988.
---. The Complete Poetry Collection. Beirut: Dar-al Awda, 2005.
Zali, Mohammad. An Introduction to Enneagram (the Nine Personality Types). Tehran: Bina Publication. 2015.
Zarrinkoob, Abdol Hossein. With HolleConvoy [Ba Karavan-e Holleh]. Tehran: Elmi Publication, 1993.