The relation between subje1;:t, object and complement on the basis of
properties of verb and lack of this relation (lack of object or complement) causes the verb to be divided into two groups of active and passive in Persian language. The active verbs are verbs which cause the object or complement in a sentence. Vice versa, the passive verbs cannot hllve an object because of their valence property. In the past, passive verbs were used in the Persian language very sparingly. Nowadays however with the influence of foreign languages, the passive verbs are used more frequently. In these structures logical subject or subjective complement are mostly used. In active sentence, subject and in passive sentence complement with some words such as: by means of, received from, through, from, etc. are normally used.