زمان تهی و سوژه‌ی شکاف خورده در رمان خانم دالووی ویرجینیا وولف: تحلیلی دلوزی

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده زبانها و ادبیات خارجی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

10.22059/jor.2022.344278.2313

چکیده

رمان خانم دالووی ویرجینیا وولف نقدی بر جامعه‌ی انگلستان پس از جنگ جهانی اول می‌باشد که در غالب خودکشی سربازی جوان به تصویر کشیده می‌شود. خودکشی وی تفاسیر مختلفی از تراژدی تا قربانی شدن دربرداشته است. با استفاده از سنتز سوم نظریه‌ی زمان و مرگ دوگانه‌ی فیلسوف فرانسوی ژیل دلوز، هدف این مقاله بررسی خودکشی شخصیت سپتیموس اسمیت در رمان خانم دالووی ویرجینیا وولف می­باشد. سپتیموس در اثر جنگ جهانی که رخدادی نمادین است دچار انشقاق و شکاف در سوژه­گی خود گشته و به دو قسمت نامساوی پیشین و پسین تقسیم شده است. سوژه­ی منقسم دچار انحلال خود می­شود به‌طوری‌که دیگر «منی» وجود ندارد، این انشقاق جنبه­ی مثبتی نیز دارد و آن رهایی از چنگ قانون و هویت است. به همین علت بردشاو که نماینده‌ی هنجار اجتماعی و اتوریته می‌باشد سعی به بستری کردن او و ستاندن رهایی جسمی و ذهنی از اوست. در همین راستا سپتیموس ناگزیر دست به خودکشی می‌زند تا آزادی خود را نجات دهد. مرگ او خاتمه‌ی زندگی اوست اما تاثیر مستقیمی بر شخصیت کلاریسا دارد که در طبقه‌ی مرفه و سیاست‌مدار زندانی شده است. مرگ سپتیموس موجب اختلال در مهمانی او و رهایی فکری کلاریسا از قید و بند می‌شود که خود گونه‌ای «شدن» است. کلاریسا برای دقایقی از مهمانی و مهمان‌ها دور شده و به وضعیت خود می‌اندیشد و زندگی خود را سراسر دروغ می‌بیند. در این راستا، مرگ جسمی سپتیموس موجب نوعی مرگ غیرشخصی در کلاریسا شده و او را نیز رها می‌کند و در نتیجه تایید زندگی به معنای دلوزی ست. زندگی برای دلوز یعنی مختل کردن آنچه که سرکوب‌گر است و در اینجا ،آن‌کس که سرکوب شده کلاریسا و همزاد او سپتیموس است که در نهایت با مرگ او رها می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Empty Time and the Split Subjectivity in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway: A Deleuzian Analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohammad Marandi 1
  • Fatima Yahyapoor 2
1 Department of English, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of English, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway (1925) is a critique of post-World War I England depicted in the image of a young veteran’s suicide. His death has been a topic of debate covering a wide range of concepts from tragedy to the scapegoat. Using Gilles Deleuze’s third synthesis of time and double death, this paper investigates Septimus Smith’s death in Woolf’s novel. As a symbolically charged event, the First World War has split Septimus’ subjectivity into two unequal halves, a former and an after. The split subject dissolves the self, and there is no longer an “I”. The dissolution of the self, however, has a positive side as well, which is liberation from law and identity. As the representative of social norms and authority, Bradshaw tries to hospitalize Septimus and restrict his mental and bodily freedom, which results in Septimus’ suicide as a liberating act. His death is the end of his life, yet it has a direct effect on Clarissa, who is restrained in a wealthy political class. The news of Septimus’ death interrupts her party and emancipates Clarissa’s thoughts, which is itself a form of “becoming”. For some moments, Clarissa gets away from her party and her guests and sees through the fake façade of her life. Thus, Septimus’ physical death causes an impersonal death in Clarissa and liberates her as well. It is an affirmation of life in a Deleuzian sense, since to Deleuze, life means the disruption of all that is repressive. Similarly, in Mrs. Dalloway, the repressed Clarissa and her double Septimus are both liberated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • subjectivity
  • suicide
  • affirming life
  • split
  • Deleuze
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