A comparative Aesthetic Study of Selected Short Stories by Tow Contemporary Women Writers from Iran and Russia based on Collingwood s Expression Theory

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Persian language and literature, Faculty of Literature and Foreign Languages, Kashan University, Kashan, Iran

3 Department of Russian Language & Literature. University of Tehran



Factors of expression and emotion are considered fixed criteria in aesthetics. Forming its approach within the American school and from the theories of Collingwood, the present article renders a study of the aesthetic effect of the factors of expressiveness, emotion, genius, and the deconstruction of the stereotypes in the following two short stories: “Center of Gravity” by the Russian writer, Victoria Tokareva, and “Zani az jens-e mes”/ “A Woman Made of Copper” by the Iranian writer, Behnaz Alipour. Regarding the same motifs in the two short stories, this study analyses the ontological views of women in two different cultures in order to show to what extent feminist views in aesthetics are in relation with the dominating cultural factors. These factors have different influences on the ideology of the characters. As a result, it seems that the Persian fiction centers on the social formation of the character while the Russian story revolves around the meaningfulness of social life.


Main Subjects

Alipur Gaskari, Behnaz. To Say...[Bemanad …]. Tehran: Zaavosh, 2013.
Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory [Nazariyey-e Adabi]. Translated by Farzane Taheri. Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz, 2006.
Davis, David. Aesthetics and Lliterature [Zibashenasi va Adabiyat]. Translated by Abdullah Salarwand. Tehran: Naghsh-e Jahan, 2020.
Dranty, Jean-Philippe. Existentialist Aesthetics [Zibayi Shenakhti-e Egzistansialisti]. Translated by Hoda Nedaee Far. Tehran: Ghoqnoos, 2006.
Eruntsova.T.A. Zhizniniy Istorii ot Victoria Tokarev [Life Stories from Victoria Tokareva]. Docviewer. yandex.ru. 20th 2019
Graham, Gordon. Philosophy of Arts: an Introduction to Aesthetics [Falsafeye Honarha: Daramadi bar Zibashenasi]. Tehran: Ghoqnoos, 2004.
Gut, Brice, and Mac Ayor Lopes Dominic. Encyclopedia of Aesthetics [Daneshnameye Zibashenasi]. Edited by Mashiat Alaee. Tehran: Matn (Farhangestan-e Honar), 2010.
Korsmeier, Carolyn. The Verve, Encyclopedia of Aesthetics [Zowgh: Daneshname-e Zibayi Shenasi]. Translated by Amir Ali Nojumian and Shide Ahmadzade. Tehran: Matn (Farhangestan-e Honar), 2010.
Levinson, Jerrold, and Paul Guyer. Philosophical Aesthetics and the History of New Aesthetics [Zibashenashi Falsafi va Tarikh-e Zibashenasi Jadid]. Translated by Fariborz Majidi. Tehran:  Farhangestan-e Honar, 2008.
Mandanipur, Shahryar. Book of shahrzad's ghosts [Ketab-e arvahe Shahrzad]. Tehran: Ghoqnoos. 2004.
Marandi, Sayyid Mohammad, and Fathali, Parisa. " Explaining the Theory of Relative References in the Novel Land of Happiness by Robert Allen Jamieson " [“Tabyin Nazariye-e Esharate Nesbi dar Roman Sarzamine Khoshhali Asare Robert Allen Jamieson]. Research in Contemporary World Literature [Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji], vol. 27, no. 1 (Spring and Summer 2022): 460-479.
Martin, Wallace. Narrative theories [Nazariyeha-ye rawayat].  Translated by Mohammad Shahba. Tehran: Hermes. 2003.
Mastour, Mustafa. Basics of Short Story [Mabani-e Dastan-e Kutah]. Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz, 2005.
Mirzababazade Fumeshi, Behnam. “An Introduction to Comparative Literary Studies”. Special Issue of Farhangistan (Comparative Literature) vol 3, no. 1 (2012) 139-150.
Mocke, Douglas Colin. Irony [Aironi]. Translated by Hassan Afshar. Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz, 2011.
Nowruzi, Mahnaz. Obrazi v Russkoi i Pirsidskoi Proze Kantsa XX - Nachala XXI Vikov [Female Images in Russian and Persian Prose of the Late XX - Early XXI Centuries]. Moscow: 2012.
---. A Comparative Study of Story Elements in the Works of Russian and Iranian Women Writers, A Case Study of the Stories of Victoria Tokarova, Zoya Pirzad, Lyudmila Ulitskaya, and Shahrnoush Parsipour. Research Project report. Tehran: Allame Tabatabaee university, 2017.
Samoilovna Tokareva, Victoria. "Centering". www.phantastike.ru. ,2012.
Sassani, Farhad. Place Semiotics [Neshane Shenasiy-e Makan]. Tehran: Sokhan, 2010.
Shaygan Far, Nader. The aesthetics of everyday life [Zibashenasiye zendegiye rozmarreh]. Tehran: Hermes. 2012.
Taghi Puri Hajabi, Sanaz, et al. "A Comparative Study of the Conceptual Metaphor of Sadness and Happiness Based on the Evidence of the Works of Afghani and Ishiguru"[“Barresi Tatbighi-e Estearei Mafhomi-e Gham va Shadi ba Estenad bar Shavahedi az Asare Afghani va Ishiguru”]. Research in Contemporary World Literature [Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji], vol. 27, no. 1 (Spring and Summer 2022): 51-79.
Todorov, Tzutan. Dialogue Logic of Mikhail Bakhtin [Mantegh-e Gofogooyi-e Mikhail Bakhtin]. Translated by Dariush Karimi. Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz, 2012.
Townsend, Dabni. Historical Dictionary of Aesthetics [Farhangname-e Tarikhi-e Zibayi Shenasi]. Translated by Fariborz Majidi. Tehran: Jahan-e ketab, 2014.
Townsend, Dabni, and Carolyn Korsmeier. Essays in Aesthetics, Essays in Aesthetics, Hermeneutics and Deconstruction [Jastarhaee dar Zibayi Shenasi Maghalati dar Zibayi Shenasi, Hermenotic va Sakhtarshekani]. Translated by Mashiat Alaee. Tehran: Nashr-e Akhtaran, 2008.
Tukarova, Victoria. Japanese Umbrella [Chatre Zhaponi]. Translated by Parviz Davaee. Tehran: Jahan-e ketab, 2017.
Wellek, Rene. “Comparative Literature Crisis”. Translated by Saeed Arbab Shirani. Special Issue of Farhangistan (Comparative Literature) vol. 1, no.2  (2010) 85-98.
Wellek, Rene. And Austin Warren, Theory of Literature [Nazariye-ye Adabiyat]. Translated by Parviz Mohajer and Zia Movahhed. Tehran: Entesharat-e Elmi va Farhangi, 2003.
Wellek, Rene. René Wellek's Narrative of Comparative Literature [Revayate Rene Volk az Adabiyate Tatbighi]. Translated by Saeed Rafiei Khezri. Tehran: Nashr-e Cheshme, 2020.
Yeruntsova. T. A. “Life Stories from Victoria Tokareva”.  Docviewer.yandex.ru., 2019.