An Investigation and Analysis of Ghassan Kanfani's Novel Rijal fi al-Shams Based on Freud's Theory of Defense Mechanism

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor of Arabic Literature, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Iran

2 MA in Arabic Literature, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Iran


The function of these mechanisms is done unconsciously and causes the person to be deprived of his true cognition. Examining defense mechanisms, in addition to providing the basis for inner self-awareness, is an opportunity to understand the reasons and sources of each person's behaviors and outward speech. Rijal fi al-Shams is a novel about the events of the occupation of Palestine by the Zionists and Nakba in 1948 and the resulting psychological pressures, and it can be examined from the perspective of Freud's psychoanalysis. The novel describes the tragic effects of Nakba Palestine and the characteristics of war and defense, such as fear, anxiety, and defense mechanisms against the enemy. In this article, in addition to introducing Freud's theory and proving the function of this approach on the analysis of the novel Rijal fi Shams, the descriptive-analytical method has tried to examine the psychological text and measure Ghassan Kanfani's storytelling ability in shaping the narrative system and structure of the story.


Main Subjects

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