Alienation and the Alienated Spirit in the Poetic Themes of Sherko Bekas and Ma’arouf Rosafi

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student of Arabic Language and Literature, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Sherko Bekas The renowned Kurdish poet and Ma’arouf Rosafi the famous Arab poet are contemporary Iraqi poets of the twentieth century who have a particular interest in alienation in their poetic themes.  The two poets suffered from social, political, and consequently, they have suffered from the alienation of place In addition to the mental alienation of personal life. Since there is no independent study of comparative analysis of the phenomenon of alienation in the poetry of Bekas and Rosafi, so the authors aimed to do a comparative study of alienation in the poetry of two poets. The fundamental question of the present study is how the phenomenon of alienation and in what form is it expressed in the poems of the two poets, and with what implications is it linked? To study this issue, the authors have used a descriptive-analytical approach based on the sociological foundations of the poems of these two poets.    spiritual, social and political alienation resulted from the hegemony of aliens and the downtrodden, resentment of living at home, Failures and fractures, suffocation and lack of freedom, rampant corruption, destruction of moral and the original criteria, frustration at people's disregard for enlightenment, disillusioned by the public's disregard for the Enlightenment, the sadness of retrogression, the regret over the decline of the motherland, and the ancient archetypes, have led the two poets into isolation along with the time alienation caused by dissatisfaction with life and calamities of the time and the time alienation and the desire to return to the past. Compared to Rosafi, Bekas outlook on global issues arising out of grief and alienation is broader. Among the concepts associated with alienation, the home has a particular theme that overshadows other provocative elements of the alienation. Because the home is the focal point for all the social, political, time and place issues and the sense of alienation surrounds around it in the poetry of the two poets.


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