Studding the evolution of Marcel's lifestyle Based on Eric Landowski's pattern of lifestyle.

Document Type : Research Paper


Associate Professor Islamic Azad University, Tehran Center


Based by Saussure, it is known that the meaning has a differential and privative aspect . Also this fact applies about the subject and his identity, it means that for having a distinct identity the subject needs an (other) who is different of himself.
Based on this fundamental debate Eric Landowski, the french social semiotician, offers the model that studies the contact of the groups: the «dominated other» and the «dominant reference», he calls these behaviors and contacts the «lifestyle». In this way he defines four lifestyles of bear, snob, dandy and chameleon.
This paper describes and analysis scrupulously the two final models and tries to analyze the system of taste and desire of Marcel, the main character and the narrator of Marcel Proust's masterpiece (In the search of the lost time) and shows the way that this character passes from the lifestyle of «mundane man», to the «bear» lifestyle (jungle man) and his passage to the lifestyle of the «genius man».