A Comparative Study of the Function of Georges Dumézil’s Trifunctionalism Theory of Contemporary Mythologist in the Myth of “Rostam and Esfandiar”

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Human Science, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Persian Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Human Science, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran Main Branch, Tehran, Iran.


The world contemporary literature, which is an uncapturable universe, has a number of scientists who have with a critical eye been scrutinizing schools ofliterary persons in different period of history. Mythologists have been the most distinguished critics in the scientists’ population: Their works are distinctive of all for detecting the core value of and for understanding the raison d'être of myths, thus inspiring a nation or tribe.
Dumézil is the most reputed mythologist of the contemporary age for his trifunctionalism theory, and his works especially focus on the analysis of Iranian mythology. He believed that the ideology and lifestyle of the Indo-European people, consequentially those of Iranians, can be defined within framework of a trifunctional structure ; the ideology and lifestyle can be compared and contrasted with the trio functions of `priests,’ `warriors,’ and `commoners’ . This comparative study tries to analyze the myths of Esfandiar, Rostam and Simorgh based on the theory of Dumézil, while trying to detect and substantiate the trio functions in the three Iranian myths.


Alavi, F and Aliakbarpoor, R, Hozure osturehaye khareji dar adabiate farsi ,N, Volume 61 , pp. 41-60, (1390).
 Alavi, F, amade parahnde dar Asare shaerane faranse gharne nuzdahom milady banegahi be adabiate farsi, Volume 37 , pp55-70, (1386).
Attar, F , Mantegh o Alteir, by Shafiei Kadkani. M, eighth edition, Tehran, Sokhan,(1392).
Bahar, M and Shamisa, S, Negahi be tarikhe Iran & asatire irane bastan, , Tehran, Mitra,(1394).
Bahar, M, Jostari chand dar farhange iran, Tehran ,Fekre ruz,(1374).
Bahar,M, (1387), Az osture ta tarikh, Esmailpur, A, sixth edition, Tehran, Cheshme.
Dadegi, F, Bondaheshn, translated by Bahar, M, fourth edition, Tehran, Tus, (1390).
Dadvar, I and the others, Intertextual study of the notion of Simorgh in The conference of the birds by Jean-Claude Carrière, Research in Contemporary World Literature, Volume 23 , pp355-370, (1397).
Dumezil, G and the others, Jahane Ostureha, translated by Satari, J, first edition, Tehran, Markaz, (1379).
Dumezil, G, (A), Sarneveshte Shahriar, translated by Baghi, M and Mokhtarian, Sh, Tehran, Gheseh, (1383).
Dumezil, G, (B),Sarneveshte Jangju , translated by Baghi, M and Mokhtarian, Sh, Tehran, Gheseh, (1383).
Eliade, M, Osture, Tarikh, Hamase, translated by Monajem, Roya, Tehran ,Fekre no,(1374).
  Ghazali, A, Dastane Morghan, by PurJavadi, N, Tehran, Anjoman Falsafe Iran, (1353).
Halabi, A,A, Mabanie erfan & Ahvale Arefan, third edition, Tehran, Asatir, (1385).
Hamedani, E, Monshaat, by Asiran, A and Monzavi, A, Tehran, Asatir, (1377).
hazali, A and Bakharzi, S, Do resale erfani dar eshgh, by Afshar, I, thirtieth edition, Tehran, Safi, (1380).
Hinnells, J, Shenakhte asatire Iran, translated by Farikhi, B, Tehran, Asatir, (1383). 
Kampbell, J, Ghodrate osture, translated by Mokhber, A, Tehran, Markaz, (1377).
Kazazi, M, Roya, Hamase, osture, second edition , Tehran, Markaz, (1376).
Monzavi, A, Simorgh and Thirty Birds, Tehran, Sahar, (1359).
Namvarmotlagh, B and Avazpur, B, Osture va ostureshenasi dar Georges Dumezil, Tabriz, logham, (1395).
 Namvarmotlagh, B, Moghaddamei bar ostureshenasi: Theories and Applications, Tehran, Sokhan, (1392).
Nazaritarizi, A, and the others, Tahlile namadgeraee va sture dar shere  Zeinab Habash, Research in Contemporary World Literature, Volume 23, Number 1 , pp. 59-80, (1397).
 Noldeke, T, Hamase melliye Iran, translated by Aghafozorg Alavi, M, Tehran, Sepehr, (1359).
Oryan, S, motune Pahlavi, Tehran, Sazman Miras Farhangi, (1382).
Purdavud, E,  Yashtha, Tehran, Asatir,(1377).
Rastegarfasae, M, Farhange Shahnameh Names, Tehran, Motaleat Farhangi, (1379).
Razi, H, Farhange Namhaye Avesta ,Tehran, Farvahar, (1346).
Satari, J, Osture va hamase dar andisheye Georges Dumezil, Tehran, Markaz, (1380).
Shaian Seresht, A and Mehrdad, H, Nazariye ostureye Gashtar va shivehaye Zohure an dar romane farsi , Research in Contemporary World Literature, Volume 2 , pp 425-444, (1396).
Shamisa, S, Shahe Nameha, Tehran, Hermes, (1396).
Sohravardi, Sh, Aghl e Sorkh, by Mofid, H, seventh edition, Tehran, Mola, (1387).
Sohravardi, Sh, Afsanehaye Sheikh Eshragh, by Sadeghi, J, Tehran, Markaz, (1391).
Starami, E, Sakhtare tragedy dar tragedy va didgahe Fredrish Schiller darbare an ba estenad be Jandark, Research in Contemporary World Literature, Volume 20, Number 2 , pp. 199-215,(1394).
 Tafazli, A, Amoozgar, J,Tarikh adabiyate Iran pish az Eslam, sixth edition, Tehran, Sokhan, (1378).
Zanjani, M, Farhange Jame Shahnameh, second edition, Tehran, Ataee, (1380).