Comparative Analysis of Forough Farrokhzad's Poetry and Nietzschean Nihilism

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Mohaghegh Ardabili University

2 mohaghegh ardabili university


Friedrich Nietzsche saw contemporary culture as facing the crisis of nihilism because of the dominance of Socratic conceptual thinking. After announcing the death of Platonic rationalist values, he first divided nihilism into two basic passive and active forms, and then the path of the creation of the superman and the universal recognition of life as a passage through passive nihilism to active, which, in his philosophy, is almost equivalent to the stages of metamorphosis of souls: camel, lion and child. Forough Farrokhzad's poetry, on the one hand, reflects his philosophical feelings or sorrows, and on the other hand, has characteristics such as: reflecting the value and status of human emotional and sensory life, free thinking and fighting with common perception methods, realism, belief in dynamism and immortality. And having a transformational course for the full acceptance of life shows his confrontation with this nihilistic worldview and his triumphant transition from a kind of passive to active nihilism. The purpose of this research is to search for the connections between Nietzsche's incomprehensible and poetic philosophy through nihilism and Forough's particular worldview through the evolution of his thought and poetry. The research method is qualitative and the dominant approach to analysis is the philosophical critique approach of non-conceptual philosophy and sometimes the descriptive approach based on the poetic propositions of the two.


Akbari Biragh, H. and Bohloli, S., "Comparative study of poetry and thought
of Forough Farrokhzad and Sylvia Platt", Journal of the Faculty of Literature
and Humanities, University of Tabriz, Volume 52, Number 211, pp. 44-19,
Asadollahi, Kh., "Forough Farrokhzad and the Theory of Self-actualization
of Abraham Maslow", Quarterly Journal of Humanities, Al-Zahra
University, Volume 18, Number 74, Winter 2008, pp. 20-1, (2008).
 Braheni, R., Awake Dream, First Edition, Tehran: Qatreh, (1373).
---, "Reflections on ‘Believing in the beginning of the cold season’, Forough
Javadaneh (a collection of poems, writings and conversations of Forough
Farrokhzad along with writings about Forough)”, Abdolreza Jafari, ed. 1st
edition, Tehran: Tanvir Publishing, pp. 505-494), (1999).
Cirlte, J. E., A Dictionary of Symbol, Routledge & Kegan Paul, (1973).
Copleston, F., History of Philosophy from Fichte to Nietzsche, translated by
Ashouri, D., 3rd edition, Tehran: Elmi and Farhangi Publishing Company,
Volume 7, (2003).
 Deleuze, G. Nietzsche, translated by Homayounpour, P., Tehran: Goftar
Publishing, (1999).
 Durant, W. J., History of Philosophy, translated by Zaryab Khoei, A., 24th
edition, Tehran: Elmi and Farhangi, (2013).
ncyclopedia Britannica, Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Nihilism,
Farrokhzad, F., “Forough Farrokhzad Poetry Divan with an introduction by
Shojauddin Shafa”, 1st edition, Tehran: Marze Fekr, (2004).
---, “Collection of Poems by Forough Farrokhzad”, Bita, published in
Foroughi, H. and Rezaei, M., "The image of Life and Death in
Contemporary Iranian PCoetry", Journal of Contemporary World Literature
Research, Volume 18, Number 2, pp. 170-159, (2013).
 Fotouhi Roud Majani, M., Picture Rhetoric, 2nd Edition, Tehran: Sokhan
Publications, (2010).
Guddon, J.A.A., Dictionary of Literary Terms, Penguin books, p. 7, (1979).
Jan Nesari and Ladani, Z., "Challenges of Tradition and Modernity in Some
Iranian Short Stories", Journal of Contemporary World Literature Research,
Volume 17, Number 3, pp. 156-141, (2012).
Jaspers, C., Nietzsche, translated by Jamadi, S., Tehran: Phoenix, (2004).
Klenberger, J., Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, translated by Sohrab, A.T., and
Atardi, E., 1st edition, Tehran: Negah Publishing Institute, (2005).
Madadpour, M., The Crisis of Nietzsche's Intellectual and Artistic Nihilism,
2nd Edition, Tehran: International Publishing, (2008).
Mahboubi Arani, H., The Birth and Death of Tragedy: An Interpretation of
the Birth of Tragedy within the Soul of Nietzsche Music, 1st Edition, Tehran:
Ney Publishing, (2014).
 Mirzaeipour, M., Intertextuality in Forough Farrokhzad's Poetry, Master’s
Thesis in Persian Language and Literature, Supervisor: Mohammad
Khosravi Shakib, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, (1389).
Mokhtari, M., Man in Contemporary Poetry or Understanding the Presence
of Another, 3rd Edition, Tehran: Toos Publications, (2000).
 - Moradi Kochi, Sh., Forough Farrokhzad's Biography, 1st edition, Tehran:
Qhatreh Publication, (2000).
 Musharraf Azad Tehrani, M., Parishadokht Poetry of Life and Poetry of
Forough Farrokhzad, 3rd Edition, Tehran: Sales, (2005).
Nietzsche, F., Hekmat Shadan (The Gay Science), translated by Al-Ahmad,
J. et al., 1st edition, Tehran: Jami, (1998).
---, The Birth of Tragedy, translated by Monjem, R., Abadan: Porsesh
Publication, (1998).
 ---, Ecce Homo, translated by Safdari, B., 1st edition, Tehran: Fekre Rooz,
---, European Nihilism, translated by Hoshyar, M., B., Porsesh Publications,
 ---, The Will to Power, translated by Sharif, M., 4th edition, Tehran: Jami,
---, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, translated by Ashoori, D., 35th edition, Tehran:
Agah, (2014).
---, Twilight of Idols, translated by Ansari, M., first edition, Tehran: Jami,
Pournamdarian, T. and Khosravi, Sh. M., "Transformation of Symbols in
Contemporary Poetry", Two Scientific-Research Quarterly of Persian
Language and Literature Research, Issue 11, Fall and Winter 2008, pp. 162-
147, (2008).
 Rosen, S. The Mask of Enlightenment, translated by Nouri, M., second
edition, Tehran: Markaz Publication, (2013).
 Shafiee Kadkani, M. R., With Lights and Mirrors in Search of the Roots of
the Evolution of Contemporary Iranian Poetry, 1st edition, Tehran: Sokhan,
---, M. R., Persian Poetry Periods from Constitutionalism to the Fall of the
Monarchy, 4th Edition, Tehran: Sokhan, (2008).
Shamisa, S., A Look at Forough Farrokhzad, 3rd Edition, Tehran: Morvarid
Publications, (1997).
 Sofren, P. A., Zarathustra Nietzsche (Explanation of the preface of what
Zarathustra said)”, translated by Safdari, B., 1st edition, Tehran: Fekre
Rooz, (1997).
Spinks, L., Friedrich Nietzsche, translated by Valiayari, R., Tehran: Markaz,
 Zarei, Z., Analysis of the Impact of TS Elliott on Contemporary Persian and
Arabic Literature, M.Sc. Thesis, Supervisor: Ahmadreza Heidarian Shahri,
Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, (2012).
 Zarghani, S. M., Perspectives on Contemporary Iranian Poetry, 2nd
Edition, Tehran: Sales, (2005).
 Zarrinkoob, H., "Themes of Forough's Poetry", Forough Javadaneh (a
collection of poems, writings and conversations of Forough Farrokhzad
along with writings about Forough), by Abdolreza Jafari, 1st edition, Tehran:
Tanvir Publishing, pp. 693-680, (1999).