Translating Free Indirect Discourse in Three Persian Translations of To the Lighthouse



This paper examines translating free indirect discourse (FID) in three Persian translations of Woolf's To the Lighthouse. First, it is referred to narrative discourse and the linguistic markers of FID as well as its effects and functions briefly. Then, translating FID in three Hoseini's, Bejanian's and Keyhan's translations of Woolf's novel is analyzed, through comparing and contrasting FID linguistic indicators: pronouns, temporal and distal deixis, modality, exclamations and adverbs of doubt and certainty. Finally, it is concluded that to what extent each translator (with different degrees) could/ could not recreate FID linguistic indicators in Persian.