Phonological Metathesis in Persian: Synchronic, Diachronic, and the Optimality Theory



Teacher efficacy refers to teachers’ beliefs in their ability to enhance student achievement and bring about positive learning outcomes. The present study was intended to investigate possible relationships between experience/academic degree and teacher efficacy among EFL teachers. Four hundred and forty-seven teachers who participated in this study filled in a survey which included some demographic information as well as Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES). The results of data analysis showed that experienced teachers (with more than three years of teaching experience) had a significantly higher level of global efficacy, efficacy for student engagement, efficacy for classroom management, and efficacy for instructional strategies compared to their novice counterparts. In contrast, teachers who had English-related academic degrees did not enjoy significantly higher levels of efficacy except in the subcomponent of student engagement. The findings are discussed in the light of different sources of efficacy to which novice/experienced teachers resort and the nature of English-related university programs.