Tropes in German and Persian Languages and Literatures


Trope, the use of words in a non-literal sense, is among the topics found in the language and literature of all nations. However, all methods of using words considered as tropes in a language, are not necessarily regarded as such in another language and literature; and occasionally there are similarities and differences among known tropes. In German language and literature 10 types of tropes are distinguished: metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, metalepsis, periphrasis, antonomasia, irony, hyperbole, litotes, emphasis, whereas in Persian language and literature only 2 to 4 tropes are discussed: simile, metaphor, metonymy, periphrasis. This paper surveys tropes in Persian and German languages and literatures, which is actually a study of tropes in language and literatures of East and West.