The magnificent story of Rustam and Esfandiyar with its marvelous abilities in appealing to various readers, who may have different tastes and interests, is undoubtedly one of the best stories of the Shahnameh. However this story and similar stories, with all their high literary value, have not been studied in a theoretical framework, derived from the new sciences. After an in depth and meticulous study of the text, a rigorous structure, like an intertwined warp and weft, is revealed from the story. From an analytical point of view, understanding this structure is definitely dependent on the ideas of structuralists especially Levis Strauss' theory- binary of opposition. According to this theory, there are two possible functions for this story, which are dependent on the external and internal cemetery of the main characters, Rustam and Esfandiyar. The first function refers to the narrators of the story and the supporters of both fronts. It is also dependent on the external cemetery of the environment. This function is always considered as mental function and it is more about the ideas that are lying behind this conflict. The second function is about the internal cemetery and the
temperaments of these two heroes. This function is considered as the epic
function. With a study of the relevant cemeteries in the story by the
framework of these two functions, it can be inferred that the main reason behind the tragic death of Esfandiyar lies in the internal motives of these heroes, not the external factors such as Jamasp and Goshtasp.