Throughout history, the mental picture about Iran in the West in general, and in France in particular, was double-faceted and contradictory. This picture was initially formed on the basis of ancient history books, and then changed in the light of the references made in the Holy Book (Old and New testaments) to Persia and the Persians. Again this picture underwent further alterations as a result of the Crusades and the propaganda of fanatical clergy. Eventually, under the influence of the travel books of European travellers about Iran and the wise and scholarly observations of the philosophers of the Enlightenment about the content of these books, the true image of Iran and Iranians was established in the French Literature as one of the basic pillars of the World Civilisation. From this period on, the Iranian thought and feeling constantly inspired French thinkers, writers, and poets in the creation of their works. This article will study travel books on Iran and their impact on the formation of the French mentality about Iranians hinting at how this image has been developed until the Age of Enlightenment.