عنوان مقاله [English]
This article is mainly focused on one of the elements of the narrative, focalization that is at work along with narration to produce desired literary effects. Focalization is basically a cognitively- minded narratological concept that deals with perceptual, psychological and
ideological stances adapted in the narrative by either narrator(s) or
character(s). In focalization studies we focus on the question of how
the reader responds to the narrative drawing on the textual devices provided by the above stances. These assumed viewing positions attribute certain taint and color to narrative and help the reader to infer how the existents of the two levels of story and discourse perceive the fictional world and how they are related.
Key Words: , ,.